ISSN (O) : 2584-1378


AUTHOR'S NAME: Nivedita Singh
UNIVERSITY - APS University, Rewa



Britishers came to India as other foreign invasion in 1600 as East India company exclusively for trading granted by Queen Elizabeth first till 1765, they were purely commercial trading company by obtaining Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa. This took sepoy mutiny in 1857 and British Crown assumed direct accountability for governing India. They looted acerbically and ruthlessly harassed Indian until Indian freedom fights achieved and British granted Independence on August 15, 1947.

THE COMPANY RULE (1773-1858)

  • “REGULATING ACT OF 1773”- Its 1st steps taken by the British government to control and regulate the affairs of company, laid foundation of central administration like political and administrative functions in India.

Its features are:

  • Governor of Bengal became governor general of Bengal and to assist them executive council of four member created and Warren Hastings became first ever Governor General.
  • Earlier three presidencies were independent but after this act it made governor of Bombay and Madras subordinate governor general of Bengal.
  • Supreme court established in 1774 at Calcutta in which there are one chief justice and three other judges.
  • Corruption and bribes are especially prohibited amongst company servants.
  • Governing body called court of directors to report on revenue, civil, and army affairs.


To correct the flaws of previous act of 1773 an amendment act came into existence in act 1781 also called the Act of settlement again it replaced by Pitts India Act.

Its features are:

  • Segregated the functions of company between commercial affairs are run by Court of Directors and political affairs are run by Board of Directors which establishes double government system and authorizes them to preside over all functions of civil, military, revenue of British captured India. This first time called British possession in India.


Its features are:

  • William Bentick was the first governor general. The governor general of Bengal later became the governor general of India, with complete civil and military authority. and removed the governors of Madras and Bombay’s legislative authority.
  • Acts are the laws enacted under this act, whereas Regulations were made under earlier Acts.
  • The commercial body terminated company and its purely became administrative body.
  • Introduced competition for selection of civil services but Indian are excluded although this step was nullified after apposition from Court of Directors.


Its features are:

  • The governor general council split its legislative and administrative responsibilities, creating a separate legislative council with six additional members known as legislative councilors. This council, which functions as a miniature parliament, has unique tools, procedures, and technology.
  • According to the Macauley Committee for Indian government Services, an open competition method of selection and recruitment of government officials was first made available to Indians in 1854.
  • The local governments of Bombay, Madras, and Agra nominated four people to represent them locally on the Governors Central Administrative Council, which consists of six new members.

THE CROWN RULE (1858-1947)

  • “GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT OF 1858”- Revolt of 1857 took place which was first war for Independence sepoy mutiny and East India Company dissolved which is called as act of good government in India by British crown took over political, commercial, administrative power.

Its features are:

  • Viceroy of India, the direct envoy of the British Crown in India, replaced the position of Governor General of India. Canning was appointed India’s first viceroy.
  • Completed the court of directors and board of control of the double government system, and established the new position of secretary of state as a member of the British cabinet, with a fifteen-person council serving as an advisory body.
  • Various administrative and corporate changes were implemented under this rule to enhance the existing Indian government structure.


Its features are

  • The viceroy nominated Indian as non official member begins to represent in law making process. 1862 viceroy Canning selected three Indian in his council Raja of Benares, the Maharaja of Patiala, and Sir Dinkar Rao.
  • Centralizing is again reversed to decentralizing and granting internal autonomy to Bombay and madras provinces in 1937, and new legislative council for Bengal, north western province and Punjab established.
  • And Viceroy Canning made his post very powerful by issuing ordinance of six month without his council agreement and empowered his council made Portfolio system in 1859.


Its features are:

  • Indian non official members are increased in nomination in both central legislative council and provincial legislative council but maintained official’s majority, also gave them privilege to discussing budget and addressing questions.

The word Election was first time tossed though not used in the act.


This Act is sometimes known as the Morley Minto Reforms, as at the time, Morley served as secretary of state and Minto as viceroy of India.

Its features are:

  • The number of members in the state and central legislative councils increased steadily from 16 to 60.
  • While the bulk of Central was still officially British, the province was permitted to add more non-official Indian members and give them more authority to advance budget resolutions and ask follow-up questions.
  • Lawmaker Satendra Prasad Sinha was the first Indian to be appointed to the Viceroy Executive Council.
  • Muslims were given the opportunity to elect Muslim members only from among themselves through a distinct electorate under communal representation. The communalism known as the “father of communal electorate” was made legal by Viceroy Minto. made a calculated decision to partition and subjugate India based on caste, name, location, sex, and place of birth.


This Act is also known as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reform, whereby Chelmsford served as Viceroy of India and Montagu as Secretary of State.

Its features are:

  • The government was centralised, but in order to lighten the effort, the topics were divided into lists for the central and provincial governments. These divisions resulted in the transfer and reserve of a dual system of administration known as dyarchy, which finally collapsed.
  • Direct elections were held across the nation and a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper house (council of states) and lower house (legislative assembly) was established.
  • Indians may make up three of the six council members, excluding the commander-in-chief.
  • To improve the degree of communal participation, separate electorates were provided for Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, and Europeans.
  • In 1926, the Public Service Commission, Central Service Commission, and Statutory Commission were established to recruit public workers and to conduct investigations and prepare reports.
  • Separated central and provincial budget, SIMON commission in 1927 and Communal awards 1932 came after this Act.


This act has documented in 321 sections and 10 schedules.

Its features are:

  • Three lists are used to split up the powers. 59 things are on the federal list for the centre, 54 items are on the provincial list for the states, and 36 items are on the concurrent list for both, just as it is now.
  • Bicameralism upper and lower house in six out of eleven states legislature of Bombay, Madras, Bengal, Assam, and United Province but with certain restrictions.
  • Further Mahatma Gandhi was adamantly opposed to communal representation from the beginning, favouring separate electorates for women, minorities, and SC/ST. Ten percent of voters correctly completed the ballot.
  • federal courts, the combined federal-provincial public service commission, and the Reserve Bank of India were established in 1937.


British PM Atlee declared and transferred the power responsible Indian hands, Muslim league demanded Partition so Viceroy Mountbatten put partition ‘Mountbatten Plan’ and both Congress and Muslim league major parties excepted and two independent dominions India and Pakistan by British conspiracy and commonwealth was the biggest loss to 200 years British captured country. On August 15, 1947, the Constituent Assemblies of the two nations, which created and adopted the respective constitutions, declared the end of British sovereignty over princely states and tribal areas. We approve, enact, and dedicate the Indian Constitution on November 26, 1949, and declare January 26, 1950, to be Republic Day.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!
Scroll to Top